The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History presents the museum’s collection via a chronological, geographical, and thematic exploration of global art history. Targeted at students and scholars of art history, it is an invaluable reference, research, and teaching tool. These thematic texts were written between 2003 and 2005.

Surrealism originated in the late 1910s and early ’20s as a literary movement that experimented with a new mode of expression called automatic writing, or […]

Pablo Picasso (1871−1973)
The artistic genius of Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) has impacted the development of modern and contemporary art with unparalleled magnitude. His prolific output […]

Breaking free of the naturalism of Impressionism in the late 1880s, a group of young painters sought independent artistic styles for expressing emotions rather than […]

Paul Cézanne (1839−1906)
One of the most influential artists in the history of twentieth-century painting, Paul Cézanne (1839–1906) has inspired generations of modern artists. Generally […]

Alfred Stieglitz (1864−1946) and His Circle
Recognized as a pioneer in the advancement of Pictorial photography in America and abroad, Alfred Stieglitz (1864–1946), photographer, publisher, gallerist, and […]

Francisco de Goya (1746−1828) and the Spanish Enlightenment
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (1746–1828) is regarded as the most important Spanish artist of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Over the […]

Art of the 17th and 18th Centuries in Naples
Neapolitan painting of the early seventeenth century is characterized by dramatic expression, emphatic naturalism, and intense chiaroscuro derived from the […]

Domestic Art in Renaissance Italy
During the early fifteenth century, Europe continued to evolve out of a series of medieval feudal states ruled by wealthy landowners into concentrated town […]

Elizabethan England
Elizabeth I, daughter of King Henry VIII (r. 1509–47) and Anne Boleyn (ca. 1507–1536), ascended to the throne as Queen of England (r. 1558–1603) with a fine […]

Europe and the Age of Exploration
The great period of discovery from the latter half of the fifteenth through the sixteenth centuries is generally referred to as the Age of Exploration. It is […]

Returning to his throne as king of France in 1527 after two years of captivity under the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Francis I (r. 1515–47) launched an […]